Department of Biological Sciences

Main Departmental Office

Biology Building, 210

P.O. Box 305220

Denton, TX 76203-5220

(940) 565-2011

Fax: (940) 565-3821

Website: www.biol.unt.edu

Gerard A. O'Donovan, Chair

Graduate Faculty: Atkinson, Beitinger, Benjamin, Burggren, Chapman, Crawford, Dickson, Donahue, Doyle, Farinha, Fitzpatrick, Fuchs, Gross, Kennedy, Kunz, LaPoint, Lott, Masaracchia, Norton, O'Donovan, Pirtle, Root, Saleh, Schafer, Schwark, Shanley, Sinclair, Smith, Stewart, Tam, Vela, Waller, Zimmerman.

Degree Programs in Biology

Research

Principal areas of research available to graduate students include aquatic biology, aquatic toxicology, biochemistry, cell and molecular biology, ecology, environmental sciences, forensic biology, genetics, limnology, microbiology, neurobiology, physiology, plant sciences and remote sensing.

Research facilities are housed in the Biology Building; the Environmental Education, Science and Technology Building; and the Science Research Building.

Research capabilities include scanning and transmission electron microscopy (with electron dispersive spectroscopy capability), flow cytometry, high-performance liquid chromatography, single- and multi-unit electrophysiology, superspeed and ultracentrifugation, DNA synthesis, visible and ultraviolet spectroscopy, tissue culture, liquid scintillation counting and light microscopy, electrophoresis and chromatography. Environmental research capabilities include complete facilities for water and water pollution analyses, archaeological studies and satellite/airborne digital image analyses utilizing a computerized remote sensing system. An aquatic research field station with experimental ponds is located a few miles from campus.

Research is supported by funds from the National Science Foundation, the National Institutes of Health, the National Institutes of Environmental Health, the Department of Agriculture, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the Texas Advanced Research Technology Program and industry. Other research is supported through UNT faculty research funds and several foundations.

Departmental faculty are involved in cooperative environmental research (with the Institute of Applied Sciences at UNT) and in molecular biology and neuroscience (through the Federation of North Texas Area Universities).

The department offers graduate programs leading to the following degrees:

Financial Support

Teaching assistantships funded by the department and research assistantships funded by individual faculty research grants support the majority of graduate students. Nine-month stipends range from $7,000 for entering master's students to $9,000 for PhD candidates. In addition, out-of-state and international students who are funded at least one-half time are eligible for in-state tuition rates. Summer teaching assistantships are available but limited in number. Contact the department for further information about assistantships. Contact Student Financial Aid and Scholarships for student loan information.

Center for Network Neuroscience

Main Office

Science Research Building, 120

P.O. Box 305220

Denton, TX 76203-5220

(940) 565-3615

Guenter Gross, Director

Students interested in neurobiology, neuropharmacology, cognitive science, advanced computer science or the mathematics of neural modeling may participate in an interdisciplinary research effort directed at investigating the behavior of neurons in networks.

The center specializes in in vitro preparations, especially monolayer cultures of mammalian central nervous system cells, and emphasizes research on pattern generation, storage and recognition. It has pioneered the development and application of photoetched multimicroelectrode devices and special culture chambers that allow the simultaneous monitoring of electrical activity at 64 sites in a network. Sophisticated multichannel data analysis systems support these research efforts. International interest has recently been directed at applying network dynamics in drug development, neurotoxicology and tissue-based biosensors. The CNNS is playing a major role in these emerging areas.

Laboratory of Forensic Anthropology and Human Identification

The Laboratory of Forensic Anthropology and Human Identification provides field search and recovery technology and scientific laboratory analysis of human remains to medical examiners, coroners, and law enforcement agencies within the state of Texas. The laboratory also provides accredited professional training in various aspects of forensic science to death investigators. The main laboratory and x-ray facility are housed in the Department of Biological Sciences together with a teaching laboratory. Cooperating facilities include the Videocomputing Laboratory (Center for Instructional Services), and the Zooarchaeology Laboratory (Institute of Applied Science). Research activities focus on material properties of bone, isotopic dietary reconstruction and taphonomy.

Institute of Applied Sciences

Main Office

Environmental Education, Science and Technology Building, 215

P.O. Box 310559

Denton, TX 76203-0559

(940) 565-2694

Kenneth L. Dickson, Director

The Institute of Applied Sciences (IAS) develops research and educational programs that address the natural and human resource issues facing Texas, the nation and the world. With an emphasis on water, land, people and communities, IAS seeks to explore resources for the future. As an organizational unit of the University of North Texas, IAS sponsors and coordinates interdisciplinary efforts in instruction, research and community service.

To carry out its goals, IAS is presently organized into four program areas: water resources, environmental chemistry, remote sensing and land use analysis, and archaeology. Through these programs, the institute coordinates educational programs for students seeking training in environmental studies and other applied science areas. It also offers to the public continuing education programs such as workshops, minicourses, seminars and symposia.

The primary role of the institute is to carry out basic and applied studies in a variety of fields in the applied sciences, including the analysis of trace organic and inorganic compounds in air, water, soils, waste materials and biological samples; toxicology; land use analysis via remote sensing; archaeological reconnaissance and salvage; and water resources management. The institute is particularly active in the coordination and execution of joint research projects with industry and governmental agencies in these areas. The following centers support this role.

Aquatic Toxicology and Reservoir Limnology

UNT has one of the best aquatic toxicology laboratories in the Southwest. The lab is equipped to conduct acute and chronic toxicity tests with freshwater and marine organisms, and conducts research for a variety of industries and municipalities on the effects of chemicals on aquatic life. The reservoir limnology program conducts water quality research on rivers and reservoirs throughout Texas. The program has vehicles, boats, and sampling equipment for conducting intensive water quality surveys. Analytical capabilities are available for analyses of water contaminants.

Remote Sensing and Land Use Analyses

The Center for Remote Sensing and Land Use Analyses (CRSLA) applies remote sensing technologies and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to land use and water resources issues. The center uses state-of-the-art computer facilities to conduct basic and applied research on remote sensing data collection, image enhancement, classification and analyses. The primary thrust is to find interrelationships between local or regional land use patterns and water quality. The Center has a fully equipped Earth Resources Data Analysis Systems (ERDAS) and ARC/INFO capabilities.

Ecological Risk Assessment/Water Research Field Station

UNT has one of the only facilities in the Southwest designed to assess, under field conditions, the effects of new chemicals and pesticides on aquatic ecosystems. Consisting of 48 aquatic testing ponds and 52 1,000- and 10,000-liter microcosms, the Water Research Field Station (WRFS) is specifically designed to assess the impacts of agrichemicals on aquatic populations and communities. The research conducted at the WRFS is designed to assess the hazards of chemicals prior to their use in the general environment. The Field Station is supported on campus by a biological and residue analysis laboratory with state-of-the-art equipment such as computer interfaced gas chromatographs.

Environmental Chemistry

The Environmental Chemistry Laboratory conducts research on the fate of chemicals in the environment. This lab has modern analytical equipment for the analysis of metals and organic chemicals in water and soils. The laboratory examines the physical and chemical processes that control the distribution of chemicals in soil, surface water, ground water and the atmosphere. Modern chromatography and spectroscopy instrumentation for the measurement of organic and inorganic contaminants are available.

Environmental Archaeology and Geology

UNT has faculty experienced in the design and implementation of cultural resource management projects. The emphasis is on reconstruction of past environments and cultural ecology as part of archaeological research. Quaternary geologic studies are supported by a sediment-soils laboratory which has full capabilities for mechanical, chemical and mineralogical analyses of samples from archaeological sites and natural deposits. A comparative osteology lab maintains an extensive collection of animal skeletons for zooarchaeological research and forensic analysis. An off-campus lab includes facilities for artifact washing and cataloging, detailed analysis, and artifact curation. Environmental geology, groundwater hydrology, geomorphology, soil science, sedimentology and hydrology research are also conducted.

Environmental Modeling

This laboratory develops and uses mathematical models and computer simulations for the assessment of risks and impacts of anthropogenic stressors on environmental and ecological systems. Research is carried out at the local, landscape, regional and global scales. The main themes are linking of environmental models of Remote Sensing/GIS and application to landscape and regional dynamics; global change effects on tropical forests and savannas; integration of modeling to policy science and relation to environmental issues and development; and integration of modeling with other technologies like optical sensors, data acquisition electronics, and high performance computers.

Degree Programs in Biology

Admission Requirements

1. The student must first apply for and be granted admission to the Toulouse School of Graduate Studies and be deemed eligible for admission by the graduate dean. The student must then be accepted by the Department of Biological Sciences. Application to both the graduate school and the department should be made at least three months prior to the anticipated date of entering graduate school.

2. The general Graduate Record Examination (GRE) scores must be included with the application. A combined score of 1000 at the master's level or 1100 at the PhD level is required on the verbal (minimum 450) and quantitative sections of the aptitude test. Undergraduate students anticipating entrance into graduate study should take the examination by the final semester of the senior year. Although not required, the subject GRE will be considered if submitted. The Department of Biological Sciences follows the guidelines set forth by the Graduate School regarding undergraduate GPA requirements.

3. To be considered for admission to a graduate program in biological sciences, the applicant must submit the following to the departmental coordinator of graduate programs:

a. a letter of intent, including a brief description with rationale, specifying the candidate's particular area of interest in biological sciences; and

b. three letters of recommendation from former professors if a recent graduate, or one of the three may be from an employer if employed for more than one year since graduation.

Master of Arts and Master of Science in Biology

A minimum of 24 semester hours of course work plus a thesis based on 6 semester hours of research is required for the Master of Science degree. A minimum of 30 semester hours of course work and 6 semester hours of BIOL 5920-5930 (Research Problems in Lieu of Thesis) or a minimum of 36 semester hours of course work and passing a final comprehensive exam are required for the Master of Arts degree. Students who wish to pursue a PhD are strongly urged to pursue an MS (thesis) degree. Up to 6 hours of 4000-level courses may be taken toward the master's degree.

The following are procedures and degree requirements for students enrolled in all master's programs.

1. Prior to registering for the second semester, each student must select a committee consisting of a major professor and at least two other faculty members.

2. The student must obtain the committee's approval of a degree program prior to registering for the second semester. Deficiencies will be stipulated at that time.

3. The student is expected to engage in some classroom teaching or related activities as an integral part of the training.

The following are procedures and degree requirements for students enrolled in thesis or research problems in lieu of thesis.

1. Before the end of the second long semester in residence, the student will present a proposal for the thesis or research problem to the committee for evaluation.

2. The completed thesis or research problem will be submitted to the committee at least two weeks before the final filing date set by the graduate dean.

3. The candidate will present the results of the research at a departmental seminar.

4. The candidate must pass a final oral defense covering the field of concentration and the thesis or research problem.

In addition to the above requirements for all programs, students enrolled in the non-thesis master's program are required to pass a final comprehensive exam administered by the major professor and advisory committee.

Doctor of Philosophy in Biology

The degree consists of 90 semester credit hours beyond the bachelor's or 60 hours beyond the master's, with 12 hours allocated for the dissertation.

The PhD represents the attainment of a high level of scholarship and achievement in independent research that culminates in the completion of a dissertation of original scientific merit. It is expected that
the candidate will have published or have approved for publication at least one original research article in a refereed journal prior to graduation.

The following are procedures and degree requirements for students enrolled in the doctoral program in biology.

1. The student will meet with the intended major professor for guidance until a doctoral committee and degree plan are established.

2. The major professor and the student will select an additional four doctoral committee members before enrollment in the third semester.

3. The committee will evaluate the student's credentials and draw up a degree plan for submission to the departmental chair and the graduate dean. The committee should meet with the student at least once each year to discuss progress.

4. A degree plan should be filed before the student may enroll for the second academic year.

5. A research proposal must be submitted to the committee as soon as possible after completion of the degree plan. It must be approved before meaningful research is begun.

6. Either a reading knowledge of a single foreign language or 6 hours of approved courses in a tool subject is required.

7. Written and oral qualifying examinations will be administered by the committee upon fulfillment of the foreign language or tool subject and course work requirements. These examinations must be completed at least nine months prior to the intended graduation date.

8. During the last semester, the candidate will present the results of the research at a departmental seminar.

9. The candidate will prepare, in consultation with the major professor, a draft of the dissertation. Copies will be distributed to committee members at least one month prior to the deadline for receipt of the final copy by the graduate dean and at least two weeks prior to the final comprehensive examination.

10. The student is expected to engage in some classroom teaching or related activities as an integral part of the training.

Degree Programs in Biochemistry

Research

The biochemistry program encompasses a broad spectrum of student and faculty research interests reflective of the great impact of biotechnology on this diverse field.

The biochemistry program receives extramural support from a wide variety of international, national, regional and local granting agencies. Additionally, research is supported by a number of biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies. Current research interests in biochemistry include regulation of cell growth and metabolism by hormones and growth factors; mammalian and plant gene structure, organization and expression; cellular regulation by the glyoxalase enzyme system; biological protective systems of oxidative stress; cell and molecular biology of invertebrate serotonin receptors; cell and molecular biology of prokaryotic sulfur metabolism; the molecular biology of prokaryotic ATCase; regulation of phospholipid metabolism and membrane biosynthesis in plants; mechano-chemical energy transduction of molecular motors using biochemical and biophysical methodologies; and investigations of interactions/organization of macromolecular structures, including nebulin, actin and myosin.

Laboratories in biochemistry are well equipped with the most advanced instruments and special equipment, including a DNA thermocycler; nucleic acid synthesizer; peptide synthesizer; pulsed-amperometric, fluorescence and UV monitor HPLC's; fluorescence microscope; electron microscope; gas chromatographs with FID and NP detectors; radiometric scanner; UV-visible and fluorescence spectrophotometers; liquid scintillation spectrometers; preparative ultracentrifuges; and tissue culture facilities.

Admission Requirements for Biochemistry

The student must apply for and be granted admission to the School of Graduate Studies by the graduate dean and also must be accepted by the Department of Biological Sciences. Application should be made at least three months prior to the anticipated date of entering graduate school.

Graduate Record Examination (GRE) scores (quantitative and verbal) must be included with the application. A combined score of 1000 at the master's level or 1100 at the PhD level is required on the verbal and quantitative sections of the aptitude test (minimum 450 verbal). Undergraduate students anticipating entrance into graduate study should take the examination in the final semester of the senior year. The
Department of Biological Sciences follows the guidelines set forth by the Graduate School regarding undergraduate GPA requirements.

To be considered for admission to a graduate program in biological sciences, the applicant must submit the following to the departmental coordinator of graduate programs:

a. a letter of intent, including a brief description with rational, specifying the candidate's particular area of interest in biochemistry; and

b. three letters of recommendation from former professors if a recent graduate, or one of the three may be from an employer if employed for more than one year since graduation.

New students should contact the graduate affairs committee immediately upon arriving on campus for information on departmental requirements. A departmental policy bulletin that delineates these requirements is available to students.

Advisory Program

The biochemistry graduate adviser serves as adviser to the beginning student. When a field of specialization and a major professor have been selected, a committee is then appointed to serve in an advisory capacity. The student meets periodically with this committee for research progress reports and consultation.

Master of Science in Biochemistry

The applicant seeking a master's degree with a major in biochemistry will plan a program with the assistance of the major professor and the advisory committee. At least 30 hours of graduate course work is required for the Master of Science degree. The student must maintain a B average in all biochemistry courses.

The biochemistry master's program requires completion of three core courses with an average grade of B or above. Supporting elective course work may be taken in biology, chemistry, physics, computer science, mathematics or any combination of these areas. A research thesis is required.

Doctor of Philosophy in Biochemistry

The PhD core course requirement consists of the completion of four courses. After completion of the formal core requirement and other elective course work, foreign language or computer science requirement, and BIOC 6010, the student will apply to the dean of the School of Graduate Studies for admission to candidacy for the Doctor of Philosophy degree. This should be done at least one year before graduation.

The research must culminate in the writing and defense of a dissertation of demonstrable scientific merit. It is expected that the candidate will have published or have accepted for publication at least one original research article in a refereed scientific journal prior to graduation.

Students also may conduct research in biochemistry, leading to the PhD degree, by entering the molecular biology program of the Federation of North Texas Area Universities. Further information about the molecular biology program is listed above.

Degree Programs in Environmental Science

The University of North Texas program in environmental science in the Department of Biological Sciences is an interdisciplinary collaboration of the Department of Geography, the Department of Chemistry and the Department of Philosophy and Religion Studies, as well as other departments at UNT. The program offers graduate studies in environmental science that lead to the Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy degrees. The course of study involves core courses and electives that are flexible and designed to accommodate students with various backgrounds and interests in the natural, physical and social sciences, who desire careers related to environmental science. Specifically, individuals are trained to identify problems, collect and interpret data, and develop solutions to today's complex and challenging environmental problems. The training is truly interdisciplinary, promoting the analytical and communicative skills required to study the critical problems facing municipalities, industries, utilities, and state and federal agencies. Students will be exposed to a wide variety of opportunities in education and research that reflect the university's interdisciplinary approach to environmental sciences.

Environmental researchers at UNT adopt many different techniques and approaches to probe and solve environmental and ecological problems. The Environmental Science faculty members are active in a diversity of research endeavors, including biology, chemistry, aquatic toxicology, remote sensing and land use analyses, environmental modeling, earth resources, environmental policy, ground water and archaeology.

Admission Deadlines

Completed applications, including official transcripts, GRE scores, letters of recommendation, environmental science application form and a letter of intent, must be received by:

June 1 ­ fall semester

November 1 ­ spring semester

Applications missing these deadlines will be retained for the following semester.

Master of Science in Environmental Science

Two options are available at the master's level: thesis option and non-thesis option. The basic thesis option degree plan consists of 36 graduate hours, including a core of 19 or 20 semester hours (depending on which of the optional core courses are selected), with the remaining 16 or 17 semester hours selected from a list of potential electives. The non-thesis option degree plan consists of 42 grad-uate hours, including a core of 25 to 28 semester hours (depending on which of the optional core courses are selected), with the remaining 14 to 17 hours selected from a list of potential electives. Each student must select the thesis or non-thesis option upon admission to the program, and with the guidance of a Graduate Advisory Committee comprised of three faculty members, will develop an individual degree plan according to the student's area of interest. Only students who select the thesis option are eligible for teaching or research assistantships.

Admission Requirements

Students admitted to the master's program must meet or exceed all requirements set forth by UNT's Graduate School. Please refer to "Requirements for Admission to the Toulouse School of Graduate Studies" earlier in this catalog for complete details. In addition to these requirements, each student must have a minimum overall 3.0 GPA, or a 3.2 GPA for the last 60 hours of course work, and a minimum GRE score of 1000 (combined verbal and quantitative score). Undergraduate course work also must include at least 6 credit hours of biology (3 of which must be ecology), 8 credit hours of chemistry (must be courses with laboratories) and mathematics up to calculus. In addition, three letters of reference by people who can evaluate the applicant's potential for graduate education must be sent to the Graduate Coordinator, University of North Texas Environmental Science Program. Each student must submit a letter of intent that states the student's intent to attend graduate school at UNT, what background the student has to be successful in an environmental science graduate program and what the student expects to gain from the program. Finally, an application form for the environmental science program must be completed. The form is included in the application package.

Doctor of Philosophy in Environmental Science

The doctoral program is a research degree, and a major, innovative dissertation is required for all students. A doctoral committee comprised of five faculty members will help the student select courses for a degree plan. Applicants to the PhD program must arrange to have a faculty member agree to chair this committee prior to application. Students entering the PhD program immediately after a bachelor's degree are required to take a minimum of 90 hours of graduate level course work, while students entering the PhD program after a master's degree are required to take a minimum of 60 hours. The degree plan will include 41 to 45 semester hours of core requirements (depending on which of the optional core courses are selected) and 12 hours of dissertation. The remaining hours will be selected from a list of potential electives, the number of hours depending on whether the students is in the 60-hour or 90-hour program. Students must select their doctoral committee within the first year after admission to the program and, with the guidance of the doctoral committee, develop individualized degree plans based on their area of interest.

Admission Requirements

Students admitted to the doctoral program must meet or exceed all requirements set forth by UNT's graduate school. Please refer to "Requirements for Admission to the Toulouse School of Graduate Studies" earlier in this catalog for complete details. In addition to these requirements, each student must have a minimum overall 3.0 GPA, or a 3.2 GPA for the last 60 hours of undergraduate course work, or a minimum of an overall 3.5 GPA in their master's degree, and a minimum GRE score of 1100 (combined verbal and quantitative score).

Bachelor's course work must be in an appropriate field (directly applicable to environmental science), with course work in biology, chemistry and mathematics, and master's programs must include a thesis appropriate to environmental science. Transcripts will be evaluated, and undergraduate leveling course work may be required. In addition, three letters of reference by people who can evaluate the applicant's potential
for doctoral education must be sent to the Graduate Coordinator, University of North Texas Environmental Science Program. Each student must submit a letter of intent that states the student's plans to attend graduate school at UNT, what background the student has that will facilitate his or her success in an environmental science graduate program and the general area of environmental research the dissertation will involve. Finally, prior to submitting an application to the PhD program, each student must have an environmental science faculty member agree to serve as his or her major professor and the chair of the doctoral committee. The student should ask for this commitment in writing and include a copy of that commitment with the application package.

Degree Programs in Molecular Biology

Master of Arts and Master of Science in Molecular Biology

Admission requirements and procedures for the master's program with a major in molecular biology are the same as for the biology degree programs listed above.

A minimum of 24 semester hours of formal course work plus a thesis based on 6 semester hours of research is required for the master's degree. Up to 6 hours of 4000-level courses may be taken toward the master's degree. Students can pursue course work at both UNT and Texas Woman's University through the Federation of North Texas Area Universities.

The following are procedures and degree requirements for students enrolled in the master's programs.

1. Students who have received provisional admission to the graduate school must enroll in a minimum of 9 semester hours of formal graduate course work in their major field during the first semester.

2. Prior to registering for the second semester, each student must select a committee consisting of a major professor and at least two other faculty members.

3. The student must obtain the committee's approval of a degree program prior to registering for the second semester. Deficiencies will be stipulated at that time. The student must complete a thesis (BIOL 5950).

4. Before the end of the second long semester in residence, the student will present a proposal for the thesis to the committee for evaluation.

5. The completed thesis will be submitted to the committee at least two weeks before the final filing date set by the graduate dean.

6. The candidate will present the results of the research at a departmental seminar.

7. The candidate must pass a final oral defense covering the field of concentration and the thesis.

8. The student is expected to engage in some classroom teaching or related activities as an integral part of the training.

Doctor of Philosophy in Molecular Biology

The Doctor of Philosophy degree with a major in molecular biology is offered through a cooperative program of the Federation of North Texas Area Universities, which includes the University of North Texas and Texas Woman's University. Students apply for acceptance into the program through one of the participating universities.

The federation doctoral program provides opportunities for formal course work, seminars, independent study, participation in regional and national conferences, and dissertation research. The program also includes federation-sponsored seminars featuring outstanding nationally and internationally recognized researchers.

Graduate students enrolled at either UNT or TWU take courses at both universities, thus benefiting from the combined faculties and facilities of the two institutions. Students graduating from the federation program will be granted the PhD from the university through which they entered the program. Course descriptions for UNT and TWU courses are located at the back of the catalog.

Federation Program Faculty

The doctoral program is staffed by faculty from the University of North Texas and Texas Woman's University. The following faculty members from each university participate in the program:

University of North Texas: Benjamin, Chapman, Donahue, Farinha, Fuchs, Gross, Kunz, Masaracchia, Norton, O'Donovan, Pirtle, Root, Schwark, Shanley, Tam, Zimmerman.

Texas Woman's University: Code, Conrad-Webb, Droge, Knesek, Lancaster, McIntyre, Mills, Rudick, Schwalm, Uphouse.

Research

Faculty of the two participating universities pursue a variety of research topics. UNT faculty research interests include pyrimidine metabolism in bacteria; Pseudomonas ATCase; mechanism of natural transformation in Gram-negative bacteria; organization and evolution of Pseudomonas catabolic plasmids; role of 5-hydroxytryptamine in the regulation of glycogenolysis; cyanide biodegradation; chemistry and enzymology of pathways for catabolism of aromatic compounds in soil microorganisms; regulation of insulin secretion; brain-stem lipids; glutathione-requiring enzymes; mammalian gene structure, organization and expression; and regulation of blood cell differentiation.

TWU faculty research interests include binding and transport in cell membranes; gene regulation and hormone action; glycoprotein synthesis and secretion; biology of retroviruses; bacterial conjugation and gene transfer; aspects of brain development and brain function and mechanisms of generating motor patterns.

Funding to support research efforts comes from the National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Texas Advanced Technology/Research Program, UNT and TWU faculty research funds, industry contracts and private foundations.

Admission to the Federation Doctoral Program

1. Students must apply to and meet the general admission requirements of either the Graduate School at TWU or the Toulouse School of Graduate Studies at UNT. Applications of students who satisfy the graduate schools' admission standards are forwarded for review to the appropriate university's Molecular Biology Committee. These committees are responsible for recommending acceptance into the federation doctoral program.

2. Graduate Record Examination (GRE) scores must be included with the application. A combined score of 1000 at the master's level or 1100 at the doctoral level is required on the verbal (minimum 450) and quantitative sections of the aptitude test. Undergraduate students anticipating entrance into graduate study should take the examination by the final semester of the senior year. The Department of Biological Sciences follows the guidelines set forth by the Graduate School regarding undergraduate GPA requirements.

3. To be considered for admission to a graduate program in molecular biology, the applicant must submit the following to the appropriate departmental coordinator of graduate programs:

a. a letter of intent, including a brief description with rationale, specifying the candidate's particular area of interest in biological sciences; and

b. three letters of recommendation from former professors if a recent graduate, or one of the three may be from an employer if employed for more than one year since graduation.

Degree Requirements and Procedures

The degree consists of 90 semester credit hours beyond the bachelor's or 60 hours beyond the master's, with 12 hours allocated for the dissertation.

The PhD represents the attainment of a high level of scholarship and achievement in independent research that culminates in the completion of a dissertation of original scientific merit. It is expected that the candidate will have published or have approved for publication at least one original research article in a refereed journal prior to graduation.

The following are procedures and degree requirements for students enrolled in the federation doctoral program in molecular biology.

1. The student will meet with the intended major professor for guidance until a doctoral committee and degree plan are established.

2. The major professor and the student will select a minimum of four additional doctoral committee members before enrollment for the third semester. A university member from outside the Department of Biological Sciences also may be selected prior to development of the research proposal and will serve as a voting committee member. At least one of the members of the committee must be from the other participating university in the federation program.

3. The committee will evaluate the student's credentials and draw up a degree plan for submission to the departmental chair and the graduate dean. The committee should meet with the student at least once each year to discuss progress.

4. A degree plan should be filed before the student may enroll for the second academic year.

5. A research proposal must be submitted to the committee as soon as possible after completion of the degree plan. It must be approved before meaningful research is begun.

6. Either a reading knowledge of a single foreign language or 6 hours of approved courses in a tool subject is required.

7. Written and oral qualifying examinations will be administered by the committee upon fulfillment of the foreign language or tool subject and course work requirements. These examinations must be completed at least nine months prior to the intended graduation date.

8. During the last semester the candidate will present the results of the research at a departmental seminar.

9. The candidate will prepare, in consultation with the major professor, a draft of the dissertation. Copies will be distributed to committee members at least one month prior to the deadline for receipt of the final copy by the graduate dean and at least two weeks prior to the final comprehensive examination.

10. The student is expected to engage in some classroom teaching or related activities as an integral part of the training.

Courses of Instruction

All Courses of Instruction are located in one section at the back of this catalog.

Course and Subject Guide

The "Course and Subject Guide," found in the Courses of Instruction section of this book, serves as a table of contents and provides quick access to subject areas and prefixes.

Undergraduate Catalog Department of Biology

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