Categorical Regression 2 (CATREG2)
The SPSS CATREG function incorporates optimal scaling and can be used when the
predictor(s) and outcome variables are any combination of numeric, ordinal, or
nominal. Standard multiple regression can only accommodate an outcome variable
which is continuous or nearly continuous (i.e. interval/ratio in scale) and it
works best with continuous or nearly continuous predictor variables. Although
standard regression can accommodate categorical predictors using one of the
following strategies for those types of predictors: dummy coding, effects
coding, orthogonal coding, or criterion coding. Binomial Logistic regression is
appropriate when the outcome is a dichotomous variable (i.e. categorical with
only two categories). Multinomial Logistic Regression or Discriminant Function
Analysis is appropriate when the outcome variable is polytomous (i.e.
categorical with more than two categories).
It is recommended that when conducting categorical regression, one approach the
process as one would approach a data reduction process; meaning it is often
necessary to conduct multiple runs of the analysis while slightly changing the
options / parameters in an effort to discover the best results (i.e. best
fitting model and most substantively meaningful interpretation of results).
For the duration of this tutorial
we will be using the
catreg2.sav file; which contains 1 outcome variable (y) and 5 predictor
variables (x1  x5). The outcome variable was operationally defined as general
happiness and was measured with a subjective rating scale. Each of the five
predictors were 8point Likert scaled questionnaire items which are believed to
measure preferences for various types of social interactions.
(1) Evaluate the variables.
Begin by conducting a Frequency function to get an idea of how our variables
are distributed. Click on Analyze, Descriptive Statistics, Frequencies...
Next, highlight / select all of the variables and use the arrow button to
move them to the Variable(s): box. Then click on the Statistics... button and
select the following. Then click Continue.
Next, click on the Charts... button, and select, Histograms: and then click
the box for Show normal curve on histogram. Then click the Continue button, then
click the OK button.
The output should be similar to what is displayed below.
Here, we see that our outcome variable not only has a substantial range of
164 values, but it also has very low values for skewness (.031) and kurtosis
(.360) which indicate a fairly normally distributed variable. In fact, we could
treat this ordinal variable as numeric or nearly continuous and decide to run a
standard multiple regression. But, we would need to use a coding strategy for
the predictor variables if we did choose to run the standard multiple
regression. Also, as this example shows, it is better to run a categorical
regression on this data because of the opportunity to apply optimal scaling and
because all the predictors appear to be and are nominal or ordinal.
The frequency table for y has been truncated to save space, but it too shows
how broadly distributed the values are on our outcome variable. The other
frequency tables show the discrete nature of our predictor variables.
Again, the histogram (with superimposed normal curves) shows how well our
outcome variable (which is nominal) displays the characteristics of an interval
or ratio variable. Bar charts would be more appropriate for categorical
variables (showing the discrete nature of the variables), but we can see each of
the predictors displays narrow range across values 1  8.
(2) Standard (multiple) Regression for comparison.
Running a standard multiple regression gives us a baseline model for
comparison. Click on Analyze, Regression, Linear...
Next, highlight / select y and use the top arrow button to move it to the
Dependent: box. Then, select all the predictors and move them to the
Independent(s): box. Then, click the Statistics button.
Next, select Descriptives (this will produce a Pearson correlation matrix).
Next, click the Continue button, then click the OK button.
The output should be similar to what is displayed below.
The Descriptive Statistics table shows some of the same information provided
in the frequencies function above. The Correlations table provides us with an
idea of the relationship between each of the variable. It provides only an idea,
because a polychoric correlation matrix (rather than a Pearson correlation
matrix) would be more appropriate given the nature of the variables. Pay
particular attention to the relationships between each predictor and the outcome
variable. Also, notice the lack of multicollinearity (i.e. low magnitude
relationships between the predictors). The significance associated with this
data is likely to be of little use given the fairly large sample size of the
data (N = 1000).
The Variables Entered/Removed table shows just that, all the predictors in
the model and none removed. The Model Summary tables shows the multiple
correlation coefficient (R²), squared
multiple correlation coefficient (R²),
adjusted multiple correlation coefficient (adj.R²), and standard error of the estimate. According to our
model summary, the collection of predictors accounts for 91.6% (adj.R²
= .916) of the variance in our outcome variable.
The ANOVA table simply tells us our R² is
significantly different from zero. Pay particular attention to the magnitude and
order of magnitude of the standardized coefficients or Beta (β)coefficients, for
each of our predictors in the Coefficients table. They should be close to the
bivariate correlations for each predictor with the outcome, as listed above in
the Correlations table.
(3) First Categorical Regression Analysis.
Returning to the Data Window, click on Analyze, Regression, Optimal Scaling (CATREG)...
Next, select the outcome variable (y) and use the top arrow button to move it
to the Dependent Variable: box. Then, click on the top Define Scale... button
and select Ordinal. You can see here the different levels of scale / measurement
available. Then, click the Continue button.
Next, select all 5 predictor variables and use the lower arrow button to move
them to the Independent Variable(s): box. Then, click on the lower Define
Scale... button and select Ordinal for all 5 predictors. Again, you can see here
the different levels of scale / measurement available. Then, click the Continue
button.
Next, click on the Output... button and select Correlations of original
variables and Correlations of transformed variables. Then click the Continue
button. Notice, if you click on the Save... button, you have the ability to save
predicted and / or residual values. Next, click the OK button. Keep in mind, the
optimal scaling process is iterative and can take a minute or more.
The output should be similar to what is displayed below.
The first two tables are of little to no interest for interpretation; we now
know who to thank for inclusion of this analysis in SPSS and there was no
missing data.
The two correlation tables show the original relationships between the
predictor variables (identical to what we saw in the original Correlations table
above), and the correlations between our transformed (i.e. optimally scaled)
predictor variables. Again, there is no danger of violating the regression
assumption of no multicollinearity; meaning, our predictor variables are not
substantially related.
The Model Summary table shows the R, R²,
adj.R², and standard error; all of
which are improvements over the standard multiple regression. The R script file
used to generate this data can be found
here.
The Coefficients table and the Correlations and Tolerance table display a
consistent pattern of relationships between each predictor and the outcome when
compared to the correlations and Beta coefficients tables displayed in the
standard multiple regression. Focus on the Beta coefficients, zeroorder
correlations, partial correlations, part correlations (semipartial), and
importance. In these two tables, the strongest predictor is x1; followed by x2,
x3, x4, and x5. All of which is consistent with the standard multiple regression
and how the data was simulated / generated.
In pursuit of being thorough, we can run a second CATREG with the outcome
variable specified as numeric (which the histogram above suggests is
appropriate).
(4) Second Categorical Regression Analysis.
Returning to the Data Window, click on Analyze, Regression, Optimal Scaling (CATREG)...
You'll notice the previous run of the analysis is still specified. Here, all
we need to do is highlight / select y in the Dependent Variable: box, then click
on the Define Scale... button (marked here with a red ellipse).
Next, change the scale from Ordinal to Numeric. Then click the Continue
button, then click the OK button.
The output should be similar to what is displayed below.
The first two tables are identical to those from the previous run.
The Correlations Original Variables table is identical to the previous run.
The correlations between our transformed (i.e. optimally scaled) predictor
variables have changed because of the (newly produced) iterative optimally
scaled data. Again, there is no danger of violating the regression assumption of
no multicollinearity.
The Model Summary table offers slightly decreased representations of the
multiple correlation between all 5 predictors and our outcome variable. The
ANOVA table again shows that our R²
is significantly different from zero.
The Coefficients table (Beta coefficients) and the Correlations and Tolerance
table (zeroorder correlations, partial correlations, part correlations
[semipartial], & importance) show values which closely resemble the
original relationships; but are slightly lower. Whether one chose to report the
strictly ordinal results or the current numeric outcome results is a matter of
opinion. The ordinal results provide slightly higher estimates of the
relationships examined but; the current numeric outcome results may more
accurately represent the data, and the difference between the two is negligible.
This should highlight the importance of (1) knowing the operational
definitions of variables, (2) conducting initial data analysis (IDA) by running
frequencies and / or descriptive statistics functions, and (3) conducting
multiple analysis while modifying the options / parameters to extract as much
information as possible from the data. Here, the true relationships of the
variables are reflected while running either analysis. In this example we knew
the true relationships between the variables because we used simulation to
generate the data. In a genuine research study, it is recommended one conduct
simulation studies in order to more easily recognize the patterns in the data
and have confidence in the analysis being performed. However, even if simulation
is not used prior to collecting the actual data, one should have at least some
understanding of the underlying relationships between the variables of interest
based on a thorough literature review (i.e. prior research and theory associated
with the area of study).
REFERENCES and RESOURCES
de Leeuw, J. (1988). Multivariate analysis with linearizable regressions.
Psychometrika, 53(4), 437  454. (here).
Meulman, J. J. (1998). Optimal scaling methods for multivariate
categorical data analysis. SPSS White Paper, SPSS Inc. (here).
SPSS Content Guideline for CATREG in PASW 18. (here).
Van Der Geer, J. P. (1993). Multivariate analysis of categorical data:
Theory. Advanced Quantitative Techniques in the Social Sciences Series (Vol. 2).
Sage Publications, Inc.
Van Der Geer, J. P. (1993). Multivariate analysis of categorical data:
Applications. Advanced Quantitative Techniques in the Social Sciences Series
(Vol. 3). Sage Publications, Inc.
