Worksheet Formulas and Functions
Worksheet formulas are tools used in cells to calculate results.
Workbook Functions Listed by Category
Database Functions 
When you need to analyze whether values in a
list meet a specific condition, or criteria, you can use a database worksheet function.
For example, in a list that contains sales information, you can count all the rows or
records in which the sales are greater than 1,000 but less than 2,500. Some database and list management worksheet functions have names that begin with the letter "D." These functions, also known as Dfunctions, have three arguments – database, field, criteria.

With date and time functions, you can analyze and work with date and time values in formulas. For example, if you need to use the current date in a formula, use the TODAY worksheet function, which returns the current date based on your computer's system clock. 
The engineering worksheet functions perform
engineering analysis. Most of these functions are of three types:
Note The engineering functions are provided by the Analysis ToolPak. If an engineering worksheet function is not available, run the Setup program to install the Analysis ToolPak. After you install the Analysis ToolPak, you must enable it by using the AddIns command on the Tools menu. 
Financial functions perform common business
calculations, such as determining the payment for a loan, the future value or net present
value of an investment, and the values of bonds or coupons. Common arguments for the financial functions include:

You can use the logical functions either to
see whether a condition is true or false or to check for multiple conditions. For example, you can use the IF function to determine whether a condition is true or false: One value is returned if the condition is true, and a different value is returned if the condition is false. 
When you need to find values in lists or
tables or when you need to find the reference of a cell, you can use the lookup and
reference worksheet functions. For example, to find a value in a table by matching a value in the first column of a table, use the VLOOKUP worksheet function. To determine the position of a value in a list, use the MATCH worksheet function. 
With math and trigonometry functions, you can perform simple and complex mathematical calculations, such as calculating the total value for a range of cells or the total value for a range of cells that meet a condition in another range of cells, or round numbers. 
Statistical worksheet functions perform
statistical analysis on ranges of data. For example, a statistical worksheet function can provide statistical information about a straight line plotted through a group of values, such as the slope of the line and the yintercept, or about the actual points that make up the straight line. 
With text functions, you can manipulate text
strings in formulas. For example, you can change the case or determine the length of a text string. You can also join, or concatenate, a date to a text string. The following formula is an example of how you can use the TODAY function with the TEXT function to create a message that contains the current date and formats the date in the "ddmmmyy" number format. ="Budget report as of "&TEXT(TODAY(),"ddmmmyy") 
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